jeudi 23 novembre 2017

Recherche étudiant pour stage de M1 "Ethologie humaine - Piétons"



Influence de la culture sur le comportement social de traversée des piétons :
de Strasbourg à Nagoya, Japon.


Au moment de traverser une voie de circulation, les français ont la lourde réputation d’être peu disciplinés et de traverser n’importe quand et n’importe où, contrairement à certains de leurs voisins européens. Mais qu’en est-il réellement ? Lorsqu’un piéton traverse une rue, il doit trouver son équilibre entre gagner du temps, en traversant le plus vite possible, et éviter d’être blessé suite à une collision avec un véhicule, en restant sur le trottoir. L’information sociale, c’est-à-dire celles des autres piétons, est également importante dans le processus de décision de traversée. Une fausse information, c’est-à-dire une traversée au feu rouge, peut est risquée pour l’individu qui fait confiance à cette dernière. La culture peut-elle influencer la perception qu’a le piéton des risques encourus lorsqu’il traverse une rue ? Les étudiants analyseront les données de Nagoya (Japon) et de Strasbourg afin de mieux comprendre les processus de décisions chez ces derniers et l’influence de la culture.

 

Références :

Sueur, C., Class, B., Hamm, C., Meyer, X., & Pelé, M. (2013). Different risk thresholds in pedestrian road crossing behaviour: a comparison of French and Japanese approaches. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 58, 59-63.

Pelé, M., Bellut, C., Debergue, E., Gauvin, C., Jeanneret, A., Leclere, T., ... & Sueur, C. (2017). Cultural influence of social information use in pedestrian road-crossing behaviours. Royal Society open science, 4(2), 160739.

 


Encadrants

Cédric Sueur
Maîtres de conférences à l’Université de Strasbourg
Equipe Ethologie Evolutive
DEPE, IPHC, UDS-CNRS UMR7178
Marie Pelé
Docteur en éthologie
Ethobiosciences : Cabinet d’Expertise et de Recherche en Bien-être et Comportement Animal


Laboratoire
Département Ecologie, Physiologie et Ethologie, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, UMR 7178 CNRS Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg cedex 2

Profil souhaité
Intérêt pour la quantification et la rigueur scientifique. Patience.

Compétences acquises au cours du stage
Méthodes d’échantillonnage des comportements, analyse vidéo, analyse statistiques, analyses de courbes, connaissances en sciences de la décision et comportement.

lundi 20 novembre 2017

Proposition de stage de master 2

Sujet de stage M2 : Développements de leviers méthodologiques en analyse texturale de micro-usures dentaires : les cercopithécidés comme cas d’étude.

Responsable de stage : Gildas MERCERON
Tel : 05 49 36 63 05  E-mail : gildas.merceron@univ-poitiers.fr
Laboratoire d’accueil : IPHEP (UMR 7262 CNRS & Université de Poitiers)
Co-responsable (s) + affiliation : Arthur FRANCISCO (Institut Pprime)  
Mots clés : Développement, Analyse de surface, Alimentation, Primates
Pré-requis : Connaissance en anatomie dentaire, Des compétences en R, voir Python seraient un plus pour ce sujet.

Résumé (contexte, problématique, objectifs, échantillonnages éventuels, calendrier, etc.)  :
Les micro-usures dentaires nous renseignent sur le régime alimentaire des dernières semaines de vie d’un animal. Des développements méthodologiques depuis 15 ans ont permis de quantifier automatiquement les textures 3D des micro-usures dentaires en s’affranchissant des erreurs d’observateurs et donc en proposant une meilleure répétabilité.
Néanmoins, un seuil semble avoir été atteint dans les analyses. Ainsi, il est difficile de discriminer des espèces ayant des compositions alimentaires présentant des similitudes mais néanmoins différentes. Ainsi, un babouin semi-terrestre présente un fort recouvrement de ses paramètres texturaux avec un cercocèbe occupant la canopée. Bien que les deux taxons aient en commun la consommation d’objets durs, le babouin ingère des aliments beaucoup plus variés et notamment des herbacées monocotylédones. Deux leviers sont identifiés pour dépasser ces limites :
1)  Intégrer une étude des paramètres sur différentes facettes dentaires coupantes ou écrasantes. Elles ont des fonctions différentes et interviennent à différents instants de la mastication. Il est donc attendu que les signaux fournis soient complémentaires, et donc non redondants.
2)  Explorer la variabilité des paramètres texturaux sur la surface scannée ; les analyses proposent à ce jour une unique valeur par surface pour chacun des paramètres. Des travaux menés par Arthur Francisco dans le cadre du projet ANR TRIDENT (http://anr-trident.prd.fr/wp-content) explorent d’autres statistiques que la seule valeur moyenne des paramètres, le tout associé à une approche de décision automatique.
Le matériel d’étude sera composé de primates cercopithécidés actuels: il comporte des espèces avec des habitudes alimentaires distinctes (folivorie, frugivorie, granivorie, opportunisme) et modes de locomoteurs variés depuis les formes terrestres aux taxons purement arboricoles : Theropithecus, Papio, Chlorocebus, Macaca, Lophocebus, Semnopithecus, Colobus, Rhinopithecus. 

Proposition de stage de master 2
Ce matériel dentaire est déjà moulé, une partie a déjà été scannée. L’étudiant devra donc compléter les acquisitions au sein de l’IPHEP, puis explorer les alternatives analytiques développées dans le cadre du projet TRIDENT aux analyses fractales multi-échelles (Scott et al. 2006) et à la simple application de la norme ISO (Schulz et al. 2010). Comme mentionné dans les pré-requis, le candidat doit être à l’aise avec le langage R. Une connaissance du langage Python sera également bénéfique pour ce sujet, mais n'est pas forcément éliminatoire.
Modalités particulières de la Convention :
Outre le travail au sein de l’iPHEP (CNRS et Université de Poitiers), le candidat sera amené à se rendre à l’IUT d’Angoulême (un séjour de 4 semaines est envisagé) où est basé Arthur Francisco. Cela sera nécessaire pour s’approprier voir développer les outils analytiques élaborés par le collègue.

Gratification du stage et frais de recherche pris en charge sur projet ANR 2018-2021 (projet Diet-Scratches ; G. Merceron)
Contact: gildas.merceron@univ-poitiers.fr
Références bibliographiques
Calandra, I. and Merceron, G. 2016. Dental microwear texture analysis in mammalian ecology: DMTA in ecology. Mammal Review 46:215–228. doi:10.1111/mam.12063.
Percher, A.M., Merceron, G., Nsi Akoue, G., Galbany, J., Romero, A. and Charpentier, M.J. 2017. Dental microwear textural analysis as an analytical tool to depict individual traits and reconstruct the diet of a primate. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. doi:10.1002/ajpa.23337.
Ungar, P.S., Grine, F.E. and Teaford, M.F. 2008. Dental microwear and diet of the Plio-Pleistocene hominin Paranthropus boisei. PLoS One 3:e2044

PhD advert in affective neuroscience/animal welfare

Drs. Colline Poirier and Melissa Bateson are looking for a PhD student to work at the interface of affective neuroscience and animal welfare at the Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle, UK.
The goal of the project is to investigate the effect of stress on brain structure and function in non-human primates using behavioural and computational neuroimaging approaches.

Details about the project and how to apply are available here: https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__www.ncl.ac.uk_postgraduate_funding_sources_allstudents_in092.html&d=DwIFAg&c=clK7kQUTWtAVEOVIgvi0NU5BOUHhpN0H8p7CSfnc_gI&r=XpGqnFKnJHmx0CQn9lpv8BoZo-WGWpT8WvlwieK2nBI&m=820szIkggH8hONH8yatK-bNg6stW4kJPyG-94IMjSmE&s=DW9e_7sHMJoksiioTGGl1DazHufoVPyYavK8dFmOJwc&e=

Applications are due by 1 February 2018 and the anticipated start date is September 2018.

Note that tuition is fully paid only for UK/EU applicants, not for non-EU ones. Please circulate widely as appropriate.

jeudi 16 novembre 2017

PhD studentship: Managing social dynamics to improve dairy cow health and welfare.

The Animal Health & Welfare Group within the Department of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Cambridge is offering a fully funded BBSRC DTP iCase Studentship tenable over 48 months.

Project Title: Managing social dynamics to improve dairy cow health and welfare.

The multidisciplinary project is designed to provide the student with comprehensive training in applied animal behavioural science and the use of remote and distributed sensing technologies to provide decision making insight to improve animal health and welfare. The successful candidate will attend DTP training courses and events and will spend at least three months with the Industrial Partner (Cambridge Animal Technologies Ltd).

Candidate requirements: Candidates should have or be expected to obtain a First or Upper Second Class Honours degree and/or postgraduate qualification in animal, veterinary or applied biological sciences. Applicants with experience of animal behaviour science and handling of large data sets / statistical modelling would be particularly welcomed.

Further information: https://www.vet.cam.ac.uk/study/postgrad/projects-2018/pearce-icase-2018

Closing date for applications is 31 January 2018, expected start date is 1 October 2018.

mercredi 15 novembre 2017

Post-doc and RA positions available in St Andrews, Scotland - Animal welfare, acoustics and behaviour.

We are currently recruiting two 3 year positions to the Mechanisms of Behaviour research group (MoB), within the School of Psychology and Neuroscience at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK. These positions will be part of a BBSRC funded project headed by Dr Karen Spencer and Dr Pralle Kriengwatana (Glasgow) entitled 'Laboratory soundscapes: optimising acoustic environments for avian welfare'. Candidates will need experience of running behavioural tests, working with birds and undertaking lab analysis of biological samples. 

For more details please see the following urls where all assessment criteria can be found:
Research Fellow - AR2012SB - (full time) Closing date 7th December - http://www.jobs.ac.uk/job/BFO900/research-fellow-ar2012sb/

Funded PhD position




Funded PhD position -
Investigating Social Learning in
 the Earliest Stone Tools using Computer Simulations
(Interdisciplinary project – related fields include archaeo-informatics; modelling; simulation; computer science; material science; mathematics; solid geometry)
Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology;
 Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences; University of Tübingen; Germany.
Three-year PhD position working in the research group Tools and Culture among Early Hominins", part of the large-scale 5-year ERC funded project STONECULT.
Background: Cultural adaptations have allowed humans to colonise the planet. While discovering the roots of human culture has been described as one of the 125 most important scientific questions of our time (Science, 2005, anniversary issue), it remains unclear when such forms of culture first arose in our lineage. Progress in this area has been hampered by a lack of null-models (or referential frameworks) for different cultural scenarios against which the significance of different forms of early stone tools can be evaluated. Simulation, like agent-based modelling, is a promising tool to provide these models.

As part of the STONECULT project the PhD candidate will use published data (as well as data that our team continues to produce) to write software that can repetitively and realistically knap, in 3D, flakes from virtual stone cores. The reliability and validity of the simulation will be tested against cores and flakes created in controlled experiments (these data already exist) and against flintknapping experiments.  Once the knapping process has been simulated with reasonable external validity, the program will then generate virtual assemblages following increasingly complex knapping rule sets (null models or referential frameworks).  These virtual assemblages will then be analysed using standard archaeological methods and compared with published data sets on the earliest stone tool assemblages.  The required physical, quantitative models for knapping were not available until very recently. Thus, this program will be the first of its kind, and its implementation will be an academic challenge. Under supervision, the candidate will have to translate these empirical findings (experimental knapping of real stone in the laboratory that leads to complex 3D patterns) into programming code. The production of this program requires an interdisciplinary treatment, extending beyond programming skills, and may include mathematics, physics, material science, archaeology and general understanding of empirical testing. We are aware that this specialized combination of skills will not be present at the start of the PhD, and thus represents no hindrance. Skilled members of the supervision team will lead the candidate in producing the software so that this combination of skills will instead be acquired by the candidate along the way. Overall, this project will lead to the education of an interdisciplinary researcher with intermapping knowledge at the interfaces of fields such as informatics, mathematics, physics, material science and archaeology. Such a student will gain valuable practical and theoretical expertise, which should place him/her in a good starting position for a scientific career (either by continuing interdisciplinary or by specializing in one of the involved scientific areas).  The project will follow Open Science guidelines and the source code will be made freely available at the end of the STONECULT project.

This PhD will be supervised by STONECULT’s PI Dr. Claudio Tennie – together with the two external STONECULT collaborators Prof. Harold Dibble (the University of Pennsylvania) and Dr. Shannon McPherron (MPI EVA, Leipzig). In addition, further local supervision at the professorial level will be provided in uncovered relevant fields (e.g. in material science, mathematics, computer science etc. – depending on the gaps of knowledge and expertise of the chosen PhD candidate).

Applicants should be interested in working in an interdisciplinary and dynamic team of international researchers from different academic backgrounds. The successful candidate should expect to work as part of a large consortium, consisting of several PhD and Postdoctoral researchers.
Requirements
Essential
·       Highly motivated
·       Masters level background (we are principally open to any background field)
·       An ability to work independently and efficiently, as well as working as part of a team
·       An ability to think in the abstract
·       A willingness to implement, improve and test systems
·       An interest in the affected fields
·       The ability to program – or strong indications for fast learning curve in programming
·       Strong communication skills
·       Both oral and, especially important, good written language (English) skills to document the software and publish papers
Desirable
·       Some background in at least some of the following (or related) fields: (Computational) Archaeology; Computer Science; Material Science; Mathematics; Solid Geometry
·       Willingness to present results in international, peer-reviewed journals and at conferences (posters/talks)
·       An interest or ability to analyse archaeological material culture
·       Experience working with 3D modelling
·       Experience in Python programming and perhaps physics engines
Once engaged within the project, the student will be encouraged to suggest additional complementary research questions that can be answered through simulation and modelling and/or with additional data.
Starting date will be beginning of 2018. The employment (German pay scale E13 TV-L, 50%, provided for a total duration of 3 years) will be arranged by the administration of the University of Tübingen. Funding includes material costs, a desk space, computer and accommodation and travel expenses to selected conference (note: no tuition fees are charged in Germany).

The University of Tübingen is one of Germany’s eleven universities in the top ‘Excellent’ class, one of Europe’s oldest universities, and currently ranked 89th in the world. The city of Tubingen is an international town with over 28,300 German and international students, sharing the colourful bustle and typical atmosphere of a young and cosmopolitan students' town. The Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology is housed in the Institute of Pre- and Protohistory of the University of Tübingen and houses diverse collections of archaeological finds, fossil hominid material, ethnographic finds, as well as a wide range of photographic and written documentation from field projects. See https://www.findaphd.com/study-abroad/europe/phd-study-in-germany.aspx for more information on doing a PhD in Germany.

Disabled persons will be preferred in case of equal qualification. The University seeks to raise the number of women in research and teaching and therefore urges qualified women academics to apply for this position.

Application

If you are interested in this position, please send your application in English (except external certificates) with the usual documentation:

·       Cover letter (1-2 pages), detailing why you are a suitable candidate for the project – for example, your qualifications, interests, and relevant experience. Please indicate your earliest possible starting date.
·       Curriculum Vitae (including publications, if any)
·       Copies of most relevant certificates
·       Names and addresses (including email) of three referees (please make sure that these referees are reachable in the weeks following the deadline for applications – apologies from our side for this partly falling in the Christmas period)

Please send all the above in electronic form (all in one single pdf-file, i.e. including all the documents listed above), to Claudio Tennie (claudio.tennie@uni-tuebingen.de) and, in CC, to Elisa Bandini (elisa-bandini@uni-tuebingen.de).

Dr. Claudio Tennie (the group leader and PI on the STONECULT project) will invite the top candidates for interview (in person or via skype) early in 2018 (likely in the first week of January), with a view to offering positions ASAP thereafter.

Deadline for applications is 12:00 (midday, German time) the 22nd of December, 2018. For further background information, see: www.claudiotennie.de (and especially the links contained therein to projects and subprojects). For any practical questions, please contact Elisa Bandini via email.