mercredi 28 juin 2017

Offre : Cognition chez le poulpe, CRCA, Université Toulouse 3

Should we isolate octopuses? Impact of social environment on the octopus’s cognitive abilities as an indirect indicator of animal welfare

Dates: été 2017
Host Institution: Dr. Graziano Fiorito, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Napoli
Co-supervision: Dr. Aurore Avarguès-Weber, Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale (CNRS/Université Toulouse 3), Toulouse.
Contact : aurore.avargues-weber [ chez ] univ-tlse3.fr.

Please add with your application in French or English, a CV, letter of motivation and name(s) of referent(s)

Project:

Context
When maintained in captive conditions, octopuses are usually kept in isolation in individual tanks to prevent territorial behaviour and agonistic encounters occasionally reported to cause cannibalism (Ibáñez Keyl, 2010). On the other hand, aquaculture practice requires maximization of growth and often uses group-living as a choice (Estefanell et al., 2012). However, most octopus species have solitary-living habit, which further support isolated rearing conditions.

These animals are very attentive to conspecifics’ behaviour; they express typical social communication through body visual patterns (Packard Sanders, 1971; Scheel et al., 2016) and demonstrate social learning capabilities (Fiorito Scotto, 1992): octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) indeed acquire by observation the preference between artificial preys shown by a conspecific individual that was previously trained to associate this artificial stimulus with a food reward. This experiment shows that this solitary-living species naturally acquired socially provided information.

It is therefore possible that continuous social visual interactions (see also Tricarico et al., 2011) would provide a stimulating cognitive context due to environmental enrichment and information gathered from the conspecific. The question is whether a social context may be acceptable (sensu Bracke et al., 1999) or even stimulating in a rearing context for a solitary-living animal with adequate cognitive capabilities.

In this project, we wish to compare learning performance and classical welfare indicators between octopuses raised either in isolation or with constant visual access to the tank of an other octopus.


Workplan
Octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) collected in Naple’s bay will be reared in individual tanks. Half of them will nevertheless have the possibility to see another individual in an adjacent tank separated by a transparent divider. Such a dual tank would prevent physical aggression between animals. The animal will be allocated in pairs on the basis of similar body size to avoid asymmetrical social influence as dominance in conflict seems established through size judgement in octopus (Boyle, 1980). The octopuses will then be trained and tested for simple associative visual learning first (presentation of two visual objects, only one being associated with food) but also for conceptual learning abilities (rule learning: ‘Delayed-Matching-To-Sample’ task and/or numerical abilities). Cognitive performances will be compared between socially isolated and pairs rearing conditions. Parameters such as time spent hidden or in exploratory behaviour and latency to catch food would be recor!
ded as indicators of the animals’ welfare in both conditions.

Expected results and outcomes

- Observation of the influence on animal basic behaviours (exploration – food catching) of the presence of a social environment on a long term perspective (2 months)

- Information on octopuses’ abilities to solve relational rule learning task as not yet demonstrated to our knowledge in cephalopods despite the known sophistication of their neural system and behaviours (Borrelli Fiorito, 2008; Edelman Seth, 2009).

- Elements about the emulative or negative influence of conspecific visual perception on cognitive performance.

Budget

Travel, accommodation and basic living expenses will be covered.

Backgrounds/skills requested

A background in ethology, cognition and prior experimental expertise would be appreciated.
Candidates with a master degree will be favoured but other candidates welcomed.

References

. Borrelli, L., Fiorito, G. (2008). Behavioral analysis of learning and memory in cephalopods. In J. J. Byrne (Ed.), Learning and memory: A comprehensive reference (pp. 605-627). Oxford: Academic Press.
. Boyle, P. (1980). Home occupancy by male Octopus vulgaris in a large seawater tank. Anim Behav, 28(4), 1123-1126.
. Bracke, M. B., Spruijt, B. M., Metz, J. H. (1999). Overall animal welfare reviewed. Part 3: Welfare assessment based on needs and supported by expert opinion. NJAS wageningen journal of life sciences, 47(3), 307-322.
. Edelman, D. B., Seth, A. K. (2009). Animal consciousness: a synthetic approach. Trends Neurosci, 32(9), 476-484.
. Estefanell, J., Roo, J., Fernández-Palacios, H., Izquierdo, M., Socorro, J., Guirao, R. (2012). Comparison between individual and group rearing systems in Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 43(1), 63-72.
. Fiorito, G., Scotto, P. (1992). Observational learning in Octopus vulgaris. Science, 256(5056), 545- 547. doi: 10.1126/science.256.5056.545
. Ibáñez, C. M., Keyl, F. (2010). Cannibalism in cephalopods. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 20(1), 123-136.
. Packard, A., Sanders, G. D. (1971). Body patterns of Octopus vulgaris and maturation of the response to disturbance. Anim Behav, 19(4), 780-790.
. Scheel, D., Godfrey-Smith, P., Lawrence, M. (2016). Signal use by octopuses in agonistic interactions. Current Biology, 26(3), 377-382.
. Tricarico, E., Borrelli, L., Gherardi, F., Fiorito, G. (2011). I know my neighbour: individual recognition in Octopus vulgaris. PLoS ONE, 6(4), e18710.

Offre de stage d'été - Suivi de reproduction Moineau domestique

Offre de stage d’été – Suivi de reproduction Moineau domestique
Contexte :
Le déclin rapide des espèces d’oiseaux communs d’Europe est aujourd’hui démontré par un nombre
croissant d’études scientifiques. L’un des exemples les plus flagrants de cette  diminution récente et
rapide est celui du Moineau domestique (Robinson et al., 2005, Ibis). Récemment, il a été suggéré que
ce déclin pourrait être dû à la mauvaise qualité des conditions de développement (Meillère et al. Plos
One).  Toutefois,  l’influence  des  conditions  de  développement  sur  des  composantes  physiologiques,
morphologiques et comportementales corrélées à la fitness a rarement été étudiée. Mon projet a pour
objectif de mieux comprendre, à l’aide d’une approche expérimentale, (1) les conséquences à court
terme  de  mauvaises  conditions  nutritionnelles  sur  le  développement  de  poussins  de  moineaux
(croissance, condition, physiologie) ; (2) les conséquences à long terme de ces mêmes conditions sur
la survie des juvéniles et leur physiologie.
Objectifs du stage :
  Aide dans le suivi d’évolution de construction des nids
  Aide dans le suivi de croissance des poussins (relevés biométriques quotidiens)
  Aide dans la mise en place et la réalisation de tests de personnalité
  Aide dans les soins aux animaux
Informations pratiques :
Le stage se déroulera sur le site du CEBC/CNRS Chizé (405 Route de Prissé-la-Charrière, 79360
Villiers-en-Bois, France). Des hébergements ainsi qu’un restaurant sont disponibles sur le site.
Le stage commencerait idéalement au 10 juillet 2017. La date de fin de stage est à discuter avec
l’étudiant en fonction des dates de rentrée universitaire.
Un étudiant en 3
ème
de Licence ou en 1
ère
année de Master est souhaité.
N’hésitez pas à envoyer votre candidature à l’adresse : sophie.dupont@cebc.cnrs.fr

Offres de stage au Parc Zoologique de Paris

Le Parc Zoologique de Paris recherche des étudiants pour 3 stages d'une durée de 4 semaines chacun:
- Etude des associations spatiales préférentielles et de la hiérarchie dans le groupe de babouins de Guinée (à pourvoir dès que possible)
- Suivi des œstrus chez les Propithèques couronnés (dès le mois de juillet)
- Préférence ‘manuelle’ chez les lamantins 

Toute personne intéressée peut envoyer une lettre de motivation, un CV et si possible une lettre de recommandations à Luca Morino : luca.morino1@mnhn.fr

Stage de deux mois niveau M1 : Mémoire et protéines chez l’abeille.



Thème : Mémoire et synthèse protéique chez l’abeille suite à un conditionnement pavlovien appétitif.
Encadrement : Pr. Martin Giurfa et Paul Marchal (Doctorant en 1ère année)
Durée du stage : 2 mois (sur la période de juillet – octobre 2017)
Lieu :   Centre de Recherche sur la Cognition Animale (CRCA)
UMR 5169, Bât 4R3, 118 route de Narbonne F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09
            Tel :05.61.55.67.31, Fax :05.61.55.61.54

Description : Les abeilles sont des insectes sociaux montrant des capacités d’apprentissage et de mémorisation importantes. Cela leur permet d’être efficaces vis-à-vis de leurs tâches quotidiennes au sein de la ruche. En laboratoire, l’abeille Apis mellifera est un modèle de choix pour l’étude fondamentale des mécanismes moléculaires de formation de la mémoire. Dans ce stage, nous proposons d’établir une courbe temporelle de la nécessité de la synthèse protéique de différents types d’apprentissages pavloviens. Pour ce faire, nous utiliserons un paradigme d’apprentissage appétitif largement utilisé par la communauté scientifique, le conditionnement du réflexe d’extension du proboscis (PER). Afin de déterminer la nécessité en protéines des différents types de mémoires formées, nous injecterons un inhibiteur de la synthèse protéique à l’aide de seringues de précision, directement dans le cerveau de l’abeille immobilisée dans un dispositif de contention.

Qualités requises : Rigueur et bonne capacité d’observation. Motivation à travailler au contact des abeilles. Pour des raisons de sécurité, nous ne pouvons accepter de candidature d’étudiants allergiques au venin d’abeille.

Contact : Envoyer CV et lettre de motivation à Paul Marchal (paul.marchal@univ-tlse3.fr)

Remarque : Nous ne pouvons fournir ni rémunération ni aide matérielle pour le séjour de l’étudiant

mardi 20 juin 2017

Associate Professor/Professor in Animal Welfare and Ethics

All information are here

POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT

Full -tim e Equine Science Lecturer with Potential for Security of Employment Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis The Department of Animal Science invites applications for a full -time Lecturer with Potential for Security of Employment (LPSOE) in the area of equine science. This academic year , 9-month position is comparable t o a tenure -track assistant professor appointment. LPSOE faculty are Academic Senate faculty members whose expertise and responsibilities center on undergraduate education, and scholarly analysis/improvement of teaching methods. Responsibilities: The Department of Animal Science is seeking applicants who will be responsible for teaching both lower and upper division undergraduate equine science lecture and laboratory courses such as ANS 115 (Advanced Horse Production), ANS 125 (Equine Exercise Physiology), ANS 126 (Equine Nutrition), ANS 127 (Advanced Equine Reproduction), and ANS 141 (Equine Enterprise Management). The appointee will ha ve a leadership role in the scholarship of teaching and learning, work with other faculty to develop, implement and assess new pedagogical initiatives, support student internships at the department equine facilities, and develop a successful discipline -bas ed educational research program with a primary focus on equine science. Qualifications : Ph.D. in Animal Science or Equine Science or a related discipline, preferably with postgraduate experience . Other preferred qualifications include documented success in areas related t o equine instruction such as teaching large undergraduate classes, equine education research including experiential learning, the use of evidence -based teaching practices, modern instructional technology, or strategies for effective teaching of diverse stu dent populations. Salary: Commensurate with qualifications and experience. Applications : Application materials must be submitted via the following website: https://recruit.ucdavis.edu/apply/ JPF01659 . The position will remain open until filled. To ensure consideration, applications should be received by July 15, 2017. Required application materials include: curriculum vitae, a description of your research background (not to exceed two pages), statement of current and proposed teaching and science education research (not to exceed four pages), and a statement describing y our past experience and future plans for activities that promote diversity and inclusion. Applicants should provide the names and contact information of 4 references . Additional inquiries should be directed to Professor R.C. Hovey , Recruitment Advisory Committee Chair, Department of Animal Science, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, rchovey@ucdavis.edu . The University of California is an affirma tive action/equal opportunity employer committed to excellence through diversity and strongly encourages applications from all qualified applicants, including women and minorities. UC Davis is responsive to the needs of dual career couples, is dedicated to work -life balance through an array of family -friendly policies, and is the recipient of an NSF ADVANCE Award for gender equity

Assistant Professor (Animal Welfare)

All information are here

Postdoctoral Position in Applied Ethology and Welfare

The Swine Teaching and Research Center located on the New Bolton Center campus of the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania is looking to fill a postdoctoral position starting July 1, 2017 (or sooner if possibl e), under the direction of Thomas D. Parsons, VMD, PhD. Talented individuals are being recruited to join a research program that addresses the social behavior and wel fare of gestating sows housed in large groups. Specific projects continue to explore the notion of animal personality and the delineation of behavioral phenotypes in large pen gestation as well as looking at novel metrics of affective st ate . Work will be carried out at the Penn Vet Swine Center that houses a 250 sow herd and provides a unique opportunity to study gestating sows under a variety of housing scenarios. Expertise in applied ethology, experimental design, and statistics is highl y desirable. Please contact Tom Parsons (thd@vet.upenn.edu ) if you are interested.

PhD studentship at RVC - Behavioural and physiological forecasting of seizure activity in dogs

We have a PhD opportunity at RVC in the canine epilepsy group, exploring whether we can use non-invasive measures to detect pre-seizure changes in dogs with epilepsy that would allow us to 'forecast' seizure activity. This will include the use of inertia measurement units to quantify behaviour patterns and physiological measures such as heart rate variability. If successful, new treatment approaches could be explored including acute treatment interventions to abort impending seizures.
 
This is a multidisciplinary project and the student will benefit from involvement in three research groups: our own epilepsy group at RVC, RVC's Structure and Motion lab with Dr Monica Daley, and the Institute of Neuroscience at Newcastle University with Dr Lucy Asher. The project is also in collaboration with technology company vetsens https://vetsens.co.uk/
 
This will be a highly quantitative project, and will involve algorithm development and coding. As such, we are looking for a behavioural scientist with an interest in computer science or mathematics, or a mathematician or computer scientist with an interest in behaviour. This is a three year fully funded studentship will be based at RVC’s Hawkshead Campus, starting October 2017. 

I would be really grateful if you could share the link below (or poster attached) with any potential students who may be interested:

I'm more than happy to answer any student enquiries via email on this address (rpacker@rvc.ac.uk))

jeudi 15 juin 2017

Doctorat : oiseaux comme bio-indicateurs - UQAM, Québec

Nouveau projet de PhD débutant en septembre 2017 ou janvier 2018
L’utilisation des oiseaux comme bioindicateurs de l'exposition aux retardateurs de flamme
Synopsis du projet:
Les oiseaux sauvages sont continuellement exposés dans leur écosystème à une multitude de nouveaux contaminants organiques couramment utilisés dans nos produits de consommation. Ces contaminantsdits émergents incluent les nouveaux retardateurs de flamme (ignifuges) dans les appareils électroniques, meubles, textiles, etc., destinés à remplacer certains mélanges des polybromodiphényléthers (PBDE) récemment bannis au Canada. Il existe présentement un manque criant d'information à ce qui a trait au devenir et aux sources d'exposition des PBDE et retardateurs de flamme émergents, plus particulièrement chez les oiseaux sauvages qui fréquentent les écosystèmes fortement pollués (ex. villes, lieux d’enfouissement technique). Le projet proposé tentera de pallier à ce manque d'information en étudiant les abondantes populations de goélands à bec cerclé qui nichent dans le Fleuve Saint-Laurent à proximité de la région de Montréal. En utilisant une approche alliant une nouvelle technologie de biotélémétrie à haute résolution et d'échantillonnage passif des contaminants dans l’air (Sorais et al., 2017, Sci Total Environ 599-600:1903-1911), ce projet propose d’étudierl'exposition intégrée aux PBDE et retardateurs de flamme émergents chez ce goéland. Des mesures concrètes de réduction de l’exposition aux retardateurs de flamme seront proposées pour des lieux d’enfouissement technique.

Informations complémentaires:
Exigences: MSc en biologie ou discipline pertinente complétée au 31 août 2017 ou 31 décembre 2017. Expérience de travail en laboratoire et sur le terrain.
Atouts: Connaissances en écotoxicologie et écologie spatiale (ex. télémétrie, SIG), expérience dans la conduite de bateaux à moteur, permis de conduire.
Bourse de PhD fournie pour une période de 4 ans
Pour appliquer, envoyez votre CV et relevés de notes (BSc, MSc) d’ici le 15 juillet 2017 à:
Jonathan Verreault
Département des sciences biologiques
Université du Québec à Montréal
Tél.: 514-987-3000, poste 1070
Courriel: verreault.jonathan@uqam.ca

PhD candidate required to investigate, “Spatio-Temporal and dietary overlap between Blackbacked Jackal and Caracal in a small-stock farming area in the southern Free State.”

A collaborative project between UNISA (Department of Environmental Sciences – Nature Conservation) and the National Museum, Bloemfontein 
Supervisor: Dr. H.I. Melville (Department of Environmental Sciences, UNISA)
Co-supervisor: Dr. N. Avenant (Head of Department of Mammalogy, National Museum)
We are looking for a candidate who holds a Master of Science degree in Zoology, Animal Ecology or a similar field to undertake a research project to illuminate the spatio-temporal and dietary overlap between black-backed jackal and caracal in a small-stock farming area in the southern Free State of South Africa. Broadly speaking, we expect the student to develop their project focusing on the following areas of investigation:
  Spatio-temporal interactions between black-backed jackal and caracal
  Mesopredator population estimation
  Prey selection and overlap
  Prey availability (this portion of the investigation should be developed to dovetail with an ongoing investigation by the National Museum into small mammals occurring in the study area)
Brief Project Background:
Small Stock  Farmers Organisations in South Africa currently estimate that caracal and black-backed jackal are annually responsible for losses of >  ZAR  1 000 million (US $ 77 million)  to  the small stock industry. Individual farmers claim to lose between 30 and 75% of their annual small stock production to predation. Concerns  have been raised that > 500 000 wild animals  in South Africa  may be killed annually as a by-product of poisoning and trapping efforts aimed at damage causing animals. This has led to a great decline in biodiversity in small stock farming areas with little or no reduction in small stock  losses  or  any  noticeable  reduction  in  black-backed  jackal  and  caracal  populations.  On  the contrary – some contend that black-backed jackal and caracal ranges are expanding and populations are increasing.
Despite the  possible  economic impact  of black-backed jackal and caracal, very little is known about their ecology individually, and even less is known about the nature of the relationship between these  species. This project aims to gain insight into the intra-guild relationship between black-backed jackal and caracal in an ecologically and economically important environment.
General:
The student will carry out the investigation while being registered as a student of UNISA (University of South Africa). The study will, however, be carried out in a small-stock farming area in the Southern Free State. Currently we have 12 GPS collars available for the study – these collars are refurbishable, if necessary. While conducting field work, on site accommodation is available to the candidate. Although additional funding is likely to become available, the candidate should be prepared to seek funding through bursaries and from other sources. The candidate will also need to have access to a vehicle for the purposes of carrying out their field work and be in possession of a driver’s license that is valid in South Africa. Although it would be of great benefit if the candidate was conversant in Afrikaans, this criterion does not preclude people who are unable to speak Afrikaans.
The process at UNISA is the following – the candidate initially enrolls for a proposal module during which time the candidate develops the research design of the project. The project design will be done in close collaboration with both the supervisor and co-supervisor. The completion of this module is based on the submission and acceptance of a project proposal, that is acceptable to both the supervisors and to the department, the submission of an ethics proposal and the granting of an ethics certificate to conduct the project, and the granting of any provincial research permits. Once this has been done, the candidate may then register for the Thesis / Research component of the project – this is the data collection and analysis component of the project. Upon completion of the project, the resultant thesis is submitted for internal vetting and external examination.
Applicants will initially be assessed based on the documents that they submit. The supervisors will draw up a short-list of preferred candidates who will be requested to make themselves available for an interview. If non-South African candidates are included in the short-list, they will be interviewed via SKYPE. The supervisors will then make a final decision and inform the candidates of that. 
Interested applicants should send the following:
  Curriculum Vitae
  Academic Record
  List of contactable references
  Covering letter
to melviha@unisa.ac.za with, BBJ/CAR Free State Application, in the subject line. Applications should be submitted on or before 31 July 2017.

Post-doc Position at University of Fribourg (Switzerland)




An assistant position attached to the lab. of Prof. Valérie Camos will be opened on 1st September 2017 (later starting date could be negotiated) at the Department of Psychology, University of Fribourg, Switzerland. The position is a one-year contract that could be extended every year.

Research project
Prof. Camos develops a model of working memory, entitled the time-based resource sharing (TBRS) model. Recently, she proposed to dissociate, within the TBRS model, two distinct systems of verbal maintenance and showed that, depending on some constraints of the task or material, young adults prefer to rely on one or the other system (Camos, 2015, 2017, for reviews). The topic of research for this post-doc project will be related to this model of working memory. More specifically, the research will examine the choice between these two working-memory strategies in older adults and differences between young and older adults therein. This project benefits from a collaboration with Prof. Patrick Lemaire (Université Marseille, France).
For more information:

Assistant Duties
As assistant to the chair, the candidate will have to participate in regular teaching duties (e.g., organisation of teaching, seminars, exams preparation) and supervision of students (at bachelor and master level). S/he will also have the opportunities to collaborate on other projects of the research group and to develop a side project on his/her own by proposing topics for research projects to master or bachelor students.

Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Experience Needed for this position
- PhD in Cognitive Psychology (or related cognitive science disciplines).
- good French language skills,
- appropriate English language skills to read scientific articles, write, and speak in scientific context.
- strong background in experimental (behaviour) cognitive psychology (i.e., experience with design and implementation of quantitative data collection and data analyses, with recruitment of participants and cognitive testing, as well as academic presentations and writing).
- Excellent management and organisational skills and to work both independently and within a team with minimum supervision and to solve problems as they arise.

Complementary Experience that will be appreciated, but not compulsory
- previous research experience in cognitive aging
- scientific background in cognitive development

Candidates are asked to submit a current Vita, copies of diploma, as well as a cover letter that describes their research interests, previous experience, motivation to apply for this position, career goals, and at least one reference name that could be contacted.

Applications and supporting materials can be submitted in French or in English to: valerie.camos@unifr.ch until 1st July 2017; the call remaining open until the position is fulfilled. Any questions could be sent to valerie.camos@unifr.ch